Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice 5th Marquess of Lansdowne 1845 – 1927

Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice 5th Marquess of Lansdowne 1845 – 1927Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC 18451927 was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

The Marquess of Lansdowne was a staunch advocate of homeopathy, as was his wife, Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton  Marchioness of Lansdowne.

In 1866, the Marquess of Lansdowne was on the Committee of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method.

The Marquess of Lansdowne and a friend of Mary Augusta Fox Holland, Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound 2nd Earl of Minto, John Ruskin, and he served under William Ewert Gladstone,

In 1866, the Marquess of Lansdowne was on the Committee of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, with William Pitt Amherst 2nd Earl Amherst, Henry Charles FitzRoy Somerset 8th Duke of Beaufort, Ralph Buchan, William Alleyne Cecil Lord Burghley 3rd Marquess of Exeter, George Thomas Keppel 6th Earl of Albemarle, William Coutts Keppel Viscount Bury 7th Earl of Albemarle (the Earl of Albemarle’s son), James Key Caird 1st Baronet (Vice Chairman), Colonel Challoner, George Grimston Craven 3rd Earl of Craven, Henry William Dashwood 5th Baronet, Patrick Dudgeon, Robert Grosvenor 1st Baron Ebury, Francis Richard Charteris 10th Earl of Wemyss Lord Elcho, Arthur Algernon Capell 6th Earl of Essex, Richard Grosvenor Earl Grosvenor 2nd Marquess of Westminster, Philip Howard Frere, Edward Kerrison, Lord Llanover, Colonel Farnaby Lennard, George Loch, Archibald Keppel MacDonald, Arthur de Vere Capell Viscount Malden, John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough (Chairman), Frederick Francis Maude, William Miles, James Moore, Charles Gordon Lennox 5th Duke of Richmond, Charles Marsham 3rd Earl of Romney, Sir Anthony Rothschild, John Villiers Shelley, John Robert Townshend 1st Earl Sydney, Lt. Colonel Charles Towneley, Augustus Henry Vernon, William Warren Vernon, Arthur Richard Wellesley 2nd Duke of Wellington (1807-1884), William Wells,

In 1866, the Treasury placed rooms at Adelphi Terrace at the disposal of John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough, who was the Chairman of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, based on the research done in Belgium by Edward Hamilton, with John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough overseeing the work of Edward Hamilton, George Lennox Moore, James Moore and Alfred Crosby Pope.

William Coutts Keppel Viscount Bury 7th Earl of Albemarle issued an address or report for the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method in 1866. Bury reported that the Dutch had experienced such success with homeopathy against that cattle plague, that they had authorised Edward Hamilton to visit Holland to investigate this.

Edward Hamilton discovered that the Dutch had treated 4798 cattle, 1031 were destroyed = 3767 were treated (with a mixture of allopathic and homeopathic treatments), the survival rate for the beasts treated was 45%, and the survival rate for the beasts treated only by homeopathy was 72-5%.

The Dutch Government had agreed to allow E Seutin, a homeopathic chemist, the total control of infected cattle in Matterness, and initially, E Seutin saved 70% of the cattle, though latterly, he had saved 9 out of every 10 beasts brought to him for treatment, and E Seutin’s use of homeoprophylaxic treatment of unifected beasts brought the epidemic under control entirely within four weeks. Matterness was pronounced free from infection and it has remained thus ever since. The remedies used were arsenicum, phosphorus, phos ac, rhus tox and sulphur.

In 1866, George Lennox Moore became involved with Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, alongside Edward Hamilton and Alfred Crosby Pope, and overseen by John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough.

George Lennox Moore wrote a detailed report on these trials, including a refutation of the falsities published in The Lancetregarding the homeopathic treatment of the cattle plague, attacking William Coutts Keppel Viscount Bury 7th Earl of Albemarle and accusing him of ‘being completely misinformed on this matter‘, and inventing a trail of misleading mistruths about the situation.

The orthodox statistics of this clinical trial revealed 8640 cases, 8% killed, 77% died and 15% recovered, though John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough subsequently issued the interim homeopathic results claiming up to 50% recovery rates with arsenicum, belladonna, phosphorus, rhus tox and turpentine as the main homeopathic remedies used.

The Times wrote an article wishing the homeopaths success in these homeopathic trials, but they also made a pithy comment that the allopaths would probably rather see all the cattle die than have homeopathy proved successfull.

The final report on the homeopathic trials in the treatment of cattle plague was issued by John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough. The orthodox statistics of this clinical trial revealed 8640 cases, 8% killed, 77% died and 15% recovered, though John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough subsequently issued the interim homeopathic results claiming up to 50% recovery rates with arsenicum, belladonna, phosphorus, rhus tox and turpentine as the main homeopathic remedies used.

Of course, the ‘valuable and so far successful’ results of the homeopathic trials so far outstripped orthodox treatments, the homeopathic trials were immediately postponed by ‘orthodox sources’.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Petty-FitzMaurice,_5th_Marquess_of_Lansdowne The great grandson of the British Prime Minister Lord Shelburne (later 1st Marquess of Lansdowne), and the eldest son of the 4th Marquess of Lansdowne and his wife, Emily, 8th Lady Nairne, Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice was born in London in 1845.

He held the courtesy title Viscount Clanmaurice from birth until 1863 and then the courtesy title Earl of Kerry until he succeeded to the marquessate in 1866. Upon his mother’s death in 1895, he succeeded her as the 9th Lord Nairne in the Peerage of Scotland.

After studying at Eton and Oxford, he succeeded his father as 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (in the Peerage of the United Kingdom) and 6th Earl of Kerry (in the Peerage of Ireland) at the relatively young age of 21 on 5 June 1866. He inherited a vast estate, including Bowood House and great wealth.

Three years later, he married Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton (a daughter of James Hamilton 1st Duke of Abercorn) and they had two sons and two daughters.

Lord Lansdowne entered the House of Lords as a member of the Liberal Party in 1866. He served in William Ewert Gladstone‘s government as a Lord of the Treasury from 1869 to 1872 and as Under Secretary of State for War from 1872 to 1874. He was appointed Under Secretary of State for India in 1880, and having gained experience in overseas administration, was appointed Governor General of Canada in 1883. The present-day town of Lansdowne, Garhwal in Uttarakhand, India, was established in 1887 and named after him.

Lord Lansdowne was Governor General during turbulent times in Canada. John A Macdonald‘s government was in its second term and facing allegations of scandal over the building of the railway (the Pacific scandal), and the economy was once again sliding into recession. The North West Rebellion of 1885 and the controversy of its leader, Louis Riel, posed a serious threat to the stability of Canada.

Yet Lord Lansdowne took the opportunity to travel extensively throughout western Canada in 1885, meeting many of Canada’s First Nations peoples. While the railway to British Columbia was not completed, this did not stop the Governor General from travelling throughout the Rockies on horseback and by boat. On his second trip out west, Lord Lansdowne took the new Canadian Pacific Railway, and was the first Governor General to use the line all the way out west.

His experiences in western Canada gave Lansdowne a great love of the Canadian outdoors and the physical beauty of Canada. He was an avid salmon fisherman, and was also intently interested in winter sports. His love of the wilderness and Canadian countryside led him to purchase a second residence on the Cascapedia River in Quebec.

It was with the issue of fishing rights between the United States and Canada that Lansdowne proved himself as an adept statesman, helping to negotiate a peaceful settlement to a potentially serious dispute between both countries. He was also a supporter of scientific development, presiding over the inaugural session of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1884.

Lord Lansdowne departed Canada with a true appreciation of the beauty of the wilderness and an equal appreciation of the diversity of Canadian society. He was considered a very able Governor General, and gave his wife a great deal of the credit for his success in Canada. One of her happiest and most successful endeavours while at Rideau Hall was a party she threw for 400 Sunday school children. Lady Lansdowne was decorated with the Order of Victoria and Albert and the Imperial Order of the Crown of India.

Lord Lansdowne’s military secretary, Lord Melgund, benefited greatly from serving the Governor General. He later became Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound 2nd Earl of Minto and served as Governor General between 1898 and 1904.

Lord Lansdowne was appointed Viceroy of India in the same year he left Canada, finally returning to England in 1894. Upon his return, as a Liberal Unionist , he aligned with the Conservative Party. The Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, appointed Lord Lansdowne to the post of Secretary of State for War in June 1895. The unpreparedness of the British Army during the Second Boer War brought calls for Lansdowne’s impeachment in 1899.

After the Conservative victory in the November 1900 general elections, Lord Salisbury reorganized the cabinet and appointed Lord Lansdowne Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He continued in that office under Salisbury’s successor Arthur Balfour. As British foreign secretary (1900–05), he signed the 1902 Anglo Japanese Alliance at his London home (now the Lansdowne Club) and negotiated the 1904 Anglo French Entente Cordiale with the French foreign minister, Theophile Delcasse.

Following the Liberal victory in the January 1906 general elections, Lord Lansdowne became the leader of the opposition Unionists (Conservative and Liberal Unionist peers) in the House of Lords. In this role, he was instrumental in the Unionist leader Arthur Balfour’s plans to obstruct Liberal policies through the Unionist majority in the upper house. Although he and Arthur Balfour both had some misgivings, he led the Lords to reject the People’s Budget of 1909.

After the Liberals won two elections in 1910 on the pledge to reform the House of Lords and remove its veto power, and after a series of failed negotiations in which Lansdowne was of key importance, the Liberals moved forward to end the Lords veto, if necessary by recommending to the King that he created hundreds of new Liberal peers.

Lansdowne and the other Conservative leaders were anxious to prevent such an action by allowing the bill, distasteful as it was, to pass, but soon Lansdowne found that he could not count on many of the more reactionary peers, who planned on a last ditch resistance. Ultimately, enough Unionist peers either (like Lansdowne himself) abstained from the vote (“hedgers”) or even voted for the bill (“rats”) to insure its passage.

In the following years, Lansdowne continued as Lords leader, his stature even somewhat improved by Arthur Balfour‘s resignation and replacement as Tory leader in the commons by the inexperienced Andrew Bonar Law, who had never held cabinet office.

In 1915, Lansdowne joined the wartime coalition cabinet of Herbert Henry Asquith as a Minister without Portfolio, but was not given a post in the Lloyd George government formed the following year, despite Conservative preeminence in that government.

In 1917, having discussed the idea to colleagues for some time with no response, he published the controversial “Lansdowne Letter,” which called for a statement of postwar intentions from the Entente Powers. He was criticized as acting contrary to cabinet policy.

When Lansdowne died his estate was probated at 1,044,613 pounds sterling of land, with another 233,888 pounds in other assets.

Of interest:

This family suffered two deaths in 1863 and 1866, of the 3th and 4th Marquess of Lansdowne, thus Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice 5th Marquess of Lansdowne inherited the title in 1866.

As a Marquess of Lansdowne was a friend of Richard Whately Archbishop of Dublin, who himself died in 1863, this friendship must relate to the 3rd Marquess.

Henry Thomas Petty Fitzmaurice 4th Marquess of Lansdowne KG 1816 – 1866, styled Lord Henry Petty FitzMaurice until 1836 and Earl of Shelburne between 1836 and 1863, was a British politician.

Henry Petty Fitzmaurice 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne KG, PC, FRS 17801863, known as Lord Henry Petty from 1784 to 1809, was a British statesman. In a ministerial career spanning nearly half a century he notably served as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer and was three times Lord President of the Council.

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