George Stanhope was an advocate of homeopathy,
He succeeded his father in the earldom in 1815 at the age of ten and later took his seat on the Tory benches in the House of Lords. He served briefly in the Tory administration of Robert Peel as Master of the Buckhounds from December 1834 to April 1835 and was sworn of the Privy Council in December 1834.
His racing colours of red jacket and cap with blue sleeves were also carried to victory by Tom Olliver in the 1843 Grand National aboard his horse Vanguard.
Lord Chesterfield married Anne Elizabeth, daughter of Cecil Weld Forester 1st Baron Forester, in 1830. They had one son and one daughter. Their daughter Lady Evelyn (1834–1875) was the first wife of Henry Herbert 4th Earl of Carnarvon.
Lord Chesterfield died in June 1866, aged 61, and was succeeded in the earldom by his only son George. The Countess of Chesterfield died in July 1885, aged 82.