Charles II Duke of Parma (Charles Louis of Bourbon Parma) (Carlo Ludovico di Borbone Parma) 1799 – 1883 was King of Etruria (1803–1807), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847), and Duke of Parma (1847–1849).
Duke of Lucca employed homeopath Guiseppe Belluomini as his physician in 1846, and he also employed homeopaths Joseph Attomyr, Settimio Centamori, Georg von Necker, and Giacomo Antonio Tommasini, and in 1848, Lucca awarded Karl Friedrich Gottfried Trinks a Knightship of the Lucchesischen Order,
The Duke and his mother Maria Louisa established a homeopathic hospital with 40 beds under Anton Schmidt, who was employed as a homeopathic physician by Charles’s mother Maria Louisa Duchess of Lucca,
Charles provided a refuge for homeopath Christophe Hartung in 1843 (who was famous for the cure of a cancerous tumour in the eye of Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz in 1841), and on 19 April 1848, when revolution broke out in Parma, Charles abdicated in favor of his son, who had himself escaped. Later, Austrian troops led by Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz occupied the duchy and restored Charles II, though this was not to last…
In 1801, Charles Louis became Crown Prince of the newly created Kingdom of Etruria as heir to his father, whom Napoleon Bonaparte had made King of Etruria.
Benninger practiced in Graz, and in 1842, Benninger wrote Geschichtlicher Ueberblick der wichtigsten physiologischen Principien des Lebens.